July 24, 2008: India launches full lobbying under NSG 45 nations for an exception for nuclear trade. The IAEA Board of Governors approved the safeguards agreement on 1 August 2008 and the 45-state nuclear supplier group subsequently had to approve a policy allowing nuclear cooperation with India. President Bush will then be able to make the necessary certifications and obtain final approval from the U.S. Congress.  At the IAEA meeting, objections were raised by Pakistan, Iran, Ireland, Norway, Switzerland and Austria.  Yashwant Sinha of the Bharatiya Janata Party, who previously served as India`s foreign minister, criticized the Indian government`s decision to seek NSG consensus and said: “India has fallen into the trap of the proliferation policy established by the United States, we have renounced our right to test nuclear weapons forever , it has been abandoned by the government.”  Another prominent member of the same party and India`s former national security adviser, Brajesh Mishra, supported the development of the NSG and stated that India`s waiver was “not prohibited” from conducting nuclear tests in the future.  While India is self-sufficient in thorium and has 25% of the world`s known and economically viable thorium, it has only 1% of the world`s similarly calculated uranium reserves.  Indian support for cooperation with the United States focuses on whether there is a constant supply of sufficient energy for economic growth. Indian opposition to the pact focuses on the concessions that should be made, as well as the likely desepriorization of research in a thorium fuel cycle, when uranium becomes highly available given the well-understood use of uranium in a nuclear fuel cycle.
Internationally, the Atoms for Peace programme led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1957. The IAEA statute, originally adopted at the UN IAEA Status Conference, established the Agency as an independent international body charged with developing the peaceful use of nuclear energy while monitoring and monitoring nuclear materials and technologies.