Among the oldest documents of the Constitution are the political writings on the theory of natural rights and forms of government by John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and Montesquieu, as well as the English charters of freedom, including the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights. James Madison, however, saw an important difference between these documents and the Constitution: “In Europe, the charters of freedom were granted by the authorities. America has led by example . . . charters of power conferred by freedom. A collection of eighty documents that show how local government in colonial America was the cradle of American constitutionalism. Most of these documents, which began with the agreement of the settlers at Exeter, New Hampshire, on July 5, 1639, and concluded with Joseph Galloway`s Union Plan in 1774, “the immediate precursor of the articles of Confederation,” were never accessible to the general reader or available in a single volume. Neither Parliament can postpone more than three days during the session of Congress without the consent of the other, nor in any place other than the one where both chambers will take part. Exclusive right to exercise in all cases, over a district (no more than ten square miles), as by the surrender of certain states, and the adoption of Congress, will be the seat of the United States government, and the same authority on all places, with the approval of the legislative branch of the state where the same is acquired, for the construction of fortresses, magazines , shipyards and other vessels in need; “And. In the event of the President`s impeachment or death, resignation or inability to exercise the powers and duties of that office, the President is the responsibility of the Vice-President, and Congress may provide by law for impeachment, death, resignation or incapacity, both president and vice-president, indicating which official will then be president. and this official acts accordingly until the disability is lifted or a president is elected.
Many state conventions have ratified the Constitution, but have called for amendments that specifically protect individual rights from federal reduction. The debate raged for months. By June 1788, nine states had ratified the Constitution to ensure that it would enter into force for those nine states. However, important states such as Virginia and New York had not ratified. James Madison, the lead author of the Constitution, knew that if these states (the countries of origin of several of their principal architects, including Madison himself) did not accept it, would be dubious. Judgment in impeachment cases extends no further than impeachment and disqualification to charge and enjoy a position of honor, trust or profit among the United States: but the convicted party is nevertheless liable and is subject to prosecution, trial, judgment and punishment, according to the law. Goods exported from a state are not subject to tax or tax. The privilege of Habeas Corpus`s letter will not be suspended unless public safety may require it in the event of rebellion or invasion.
No person who, according to his laws, is required in a state to serve or work in a state that escapes to another may be exempted from that service or work as a result of an existing law or regulation, but is delivered at the request of the party who may be owed that service or work. With regard to the definition and criminalization of stays and crimes committed on the high seas and crimes against the law of nations; In September 1787 it was sent to the states for ratification. Nine of the 13 states would have to ratify it so that the Constitution would be effective for the ratifying countries.